ElementaryIntermediate


RELATIVE CLAUSES

(Adjective Clauses )
Bir isim hakkında bilgi veren cümledir.

“ I know the woman (who) is wearing a green hat . “
noun Rel. Cla. Adj. Cla. (necessary inform.)

­­--- Gerekli bilgi ise ‘ that ‘ de kullanılabilir , virgül yoksa yoksa that kullanabiliriz.

Defining Relative Clause (without comma)
“ The person who lives next to us is an engineer. “
Non-defining Relative Clause
“ Mr Jones, who lives next to us , is an engineer . “
Relative Pronouns
1-Who... persons
2-Which..animals
3-Where=at which..places
4-Who,which,where,that..Defining Relative Clause (without comma)
5-Whose=of which..possession
6-.......whom...... (obj)
7-Why=for which.. reason
Combining two sentences
1-Detect the common words
2-Omit the word in the second sentence
3-Find an appropriate Relative Clause
4-Combine two sentences
WHO
Sophia recently played a mother in a film directed by her son .
She was one of the most beautiful and talented stars.
Sophia ,who was one of the most beautiful and talented stars of her generation played a mother in a film directed by her son.
The student is happy.He got the highest mark on the test.
The student who got the highest mark...
WHICH
The chair is broken.It is in the study room.
The chair which is in the study room is broken.
WHOM
Tanımlanan isim, tanımlayan cümlede,nesne durumunda ise whom olur.
I saw the woman I met her last year.
I saw the woman whom I met last year.
The applicant is suitable for the vacancy.We interviewed him
The applicant whom we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the vacancy .
The film was very interesting .We saw it last week .
The film which we saw last night was very interesting .
Preposition + whom
The man wasn’t satisfied with the deal .I bought this car from him.
The man from whom I bought this car wasn’t satisfied with .........
The man whom I bought this car .......
The girl is very messy .I’m sharing the flat with her.
The girl with whom I’m sharing the flat is very messy.
The girl whom I’m sharing the flat with is very messy.
The case is very important .I have told you about it .
The case about which I have told you is very important .
The case which I have told you about is ...
The chair doesn’t seem safe .You’re sitting on it.
The chair on which you’re sitting doesn’t seem very safe.
The chair which you are sitting on......
• Preposition varsa “ who” kullanılmaz
• Whose=of which
• Whose+noun canlılarda
• Noun+of which nesnelerde
* Do you know the man ?
His car was stolen .
Do you know the man whose car was stolen
* They built a church .The roaf of the church was copper.
They built a church whose roaf was copper .
They built a church roaf of which was copper .
Where + in which
That is the house I was born in that house .
That is the house where I was born .
That is the house in which I was born .
That is the house which I was born .
That is the house that I was born .
That is the house I was born in .
The place which you should keep this medicine in should be dry and out of direct sunlight.
Jardon,which occupies a sensitive area between Israel and Iraq, is one of the world’s few remaining absolute monarch.
The great pyramid of Khufu,which is near Caira ,is one of the most famous monuments in the world.
The restaurant ,where we went for lunch , was good.
Why = for which (reason)
We know the reason why he seems reluctant to come with us
When = time
I remember the day. He left on that day .
I remember the day when he left .
I remember the day on which he left .
I remember the day that he left .
I remember the day he left .
Expressions of quantity in Relative Clauses
many of whom
some of whom
main clause + most of whom + adj . clause
all of which
none of which
Sally has two close friends both of whom are interested in fine arts.
Mary lent me two books both of which are very useful .
Mary’s sister each of whom lives in a different city are coming together for a family reunion.
Some of
Both of
All of
A few of whom / which + plural verb form
Many of
Most of
None of
There are many sculptures in the museum some of date back to 500 A.D.
She bought many things at the store only a few of which were necessary .
I know the woman each of whose sons needs special care.
The magazine most of whose readers are housewives has a huge.
Which modifying the whole sentence
He cycles to work everyday .This keeps him healthy .
He cycles to work everyday , which keeps him healthy.
* Reduction of Relative Clause
Sıfat cümlesinden ilgi zamirinin ve yardımcı fiilinin atılmasıdır.
1- To be
Substances which are in the center of the earth subject to pressure .
Substances in the center of the earth subject to pressure .
2- To be + adjective
The girl who is happy with the result is smiling.
The girl happy with the result is smiling .
3- S.present Ving who play playing
The man who lives upstairs is making too much noise .
The man living upstairs is making too much noise .
4- Pr.Continuous Ving who is playing playing
The woman who is talking to the teacher is my mother.
The woman talking to the ............
5- S.past Ving who played playing
The tree which blocked the road was blown by the storm .
The tree blocking .......
6- Past continuous Ving who was playing playing
The people who were waiting for the bus shelter in my door.
The people waiting for .......
7- Reduction of non-defining relative clause
Her parents , who expect her to get a highmark ,will be disappointed if she can’t .
Her parents expecting her ......
8- Reduction of Passive relative clause
who + be + V3 V3 who was accused V3
which
* The child who was punished by the teacher was standing in the corner .
The child punished by the teacher .........
* The money which was stolen from the bank has been recovered .
The money stolen from.........
* Dr.Brown ,who was ashamed of his behaviour apologized .
Dr.Brown ashamed of ........
* The student who was registered
The student registered ..........
Present cont. being + V3 which was being washed being washed

Past cont. Passive
Which was being washed being washed
- The air conditioner which is being installed makes my office comfortable
- The air conditioner being instlled..................
9- The first, second, the last or Sup. + to inf.
- Yesterday I was the last person who left the office

- Yesterday I was the last person to leave the office
- He was one of the earliest scientists who claimed that the world is round
He was one of the earliest scientists to claim..............
10- Reduction of Relative Clause containing Modal verb
- The child needs a friend whom he can play
- The child needs afraid to play with
- People who have severe vision problems suffer a lot
- People with severe vision.........
APPOSITIVE PHRASE (açıklayıcı ara cümle)
1- Turgut Özal _______ the eighth president of Turkey, died in 1993
A) who B) where C) whom D) - when
2- Ankara __--_--_ the capital city of Turkey , is better organized than Istanbul .
3- Neil Amstrong , _who_ was the first on the moon , was from the USA
4- Neil Amstrong , the first on the .............

 

   
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